Climate change is a reaction caused by the increase of Greenhouse Gas in the atmosphere. It is observed through phenomena like increased temperatures at the surface of the hearth, causing extreme weather events and changes of our natural environment as we know it.
Per the Cambridge dictionary: Sustainability is "the idea that goods and services should be produced in ways that do not use resources that cannot be replaced and that do not damage the environment." Beyond not damaging the environment, it has become a matter of protecting the very resources that are essential for all living species to survive (humans, animals, plants, etc.).
Per the Cambridge dictionary, GHG are the "gases responsible for the so-called "greenhouse effect" causing gradual warming of the surface of the earth due to the increase of those gases in the atmosphere."
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the primary GHG (representing 75% of emissions) alongside methane, nitrous oxide, and others.
"CO2" is the chemical formula for carbon dioxide. Per the Cambridge dictionary, it is "the gas formed when carbon is burned, or when people or animals breathe out." CO2 is the main Greenhouse Gas (75%) that has been scientifically proven responsible for global warming since the 1980s.
"CO2e" stands for "carbon dioxide equivalent". GHG are not limited to CO2 but also include other gases such as methane, nitrous oxide, and more. There is a common practice of bringing it all in CO2 equivalent to provide one single consolidated unit to measure all GHG.
Per the Cambridge dictionary, "a carbon footprint is a measurement of the amount of carbon dioxide that a person or company's activity produces."
Per the Cambridge dictionary: an organization, activity, etc., is said to be carbon neutral if it does not add to the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere by taking actions removing as much carbon dioxide as it creates. Check out our dedicated blog article to understand the difference between "carbon neutral" and "net-zero."
Per the Cambridge dictionary: an organization, activity, etc., is said to be operating net zero when removing as many GHG emissions (CO2, methane, nitrous oxide…) as it produces. Check out our dedicated blog article to understand the difference between "carbon neutral" and "net-zero".
Calculations are the result of the processing of two elements: an input of data and a formula.
In the case of carbon emissions, there are two types of data input:
Regarding the formula part, there is not one way to compute carbon emissions, and many variables can impact the results. At SQUAKE, we are constantly improving our calculations with the latest research, frameworks, and certifications available to best support our partners on their way to build sustainable travel and transport offerings. Our research team also regularly develops extra layers of calculation to allow for an even more granular understanding of all travel or transport-related emissions.
Climate change mitigation can only happen under three conditions, one can't go without the other, and they apply to both individuals and organizations:
A climate project is a company or a not-for-profit organization whose core mission is to improve an ecosystem or its impact. It can be active in as many fields as restoring the biodiversity of a landscape, enhancing the quality of life of a community of people, capturing carbon dioxide back from the atmosphere (e.g. Direct air capture), or developing renewable sources of energy (e.g., Sustainable Aviation Fuels)
Per the Cambridge dictionary: a carbon credit is the right of a business, factory, etc., to release 1000 kilograms of carbon dioxide into the environment. The unit for Carbon Credit is the ton, but can be also seen expressed in kilograms.
SAF are the only immediate solution to fly planes sustainably. These are non-conventional (non-fossil derived) aviation fuels, also known as fossil-free aviation fuels. They are derived from sources such as feedstocks/biomass (Corn grain, oil seeds, various fats, oils, greases, agricultural residues, etc.). Using sustainable aviation fuels significantly reduces the overall CO2 lifecycle of flight emissions compared to fossil fuels, by up to 80%, the remaining 20% depending on how carbon intensive are the production and logistics to carry those SAF to the aircrafts.